What is Cancer?

Cancer occurs when cells divide uncontrollably. It can start almost anywhere in the human body, which is made up of trillions of cells. These abnormal cells can invade nearby tissues or travel to distant sites by entering the bloodstream or lymphatic system.

What causes Cancer?

Cancer occurs when there are changes in the genes responsible for cell growth and repair. These changes are the result of the interaction between genetic host factors and external agents which can be categorized as:

  • Physical Carcinogens such as Ultra Violet (UV) and Ionizing Radiation
  • Chemical Carcinogens such as Asbestos and Tobacco smoke
  • Biological Carcinogens such as infections by Virus (Hepatitis B Virus and Liver Cancer, Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) and Cervical Cancer) and Bacteria (Helicobater Pylori and Gastric Cancer) and Parasites Schistosomiasis and Bladder Cancer contamination of food by Mycotoxins such as Aflatoxins (products of Aspergillus Fungi) causing Liver Cancer.


  • Sores that refuse to heal
  • Unusual bleeding or discharge
  • Thickening of lump in the breast or on other parts of the body
  • Change in bowel habits or bladder function
  • Nagging cough or hoarseness
  • Indigestion or difficulty in swallowing
  • Recent changes in a wart or mole
  • Unexplained weight loss or fever